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日志

 
 

关于定语从句  

2011-05-15 10:52:49|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句

 

1. 基本区别

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,可将定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。一般说来,限制性定语从句是整个句子不可缺少的部分,如果省略会影响全句的主要思想,这种定语从句前面一般不用逗号;而非限制性定语从句则只是主句的一种补充说明,即即使去掉,也不会影响全句的主要思想,这种定语从句前通常有逗号隔开。如:

This is the book that you want. 这就是你要的那本书。

句中的you want为限制性定语从句,如果去掉,意思就不清楚。

He bought me a book, which was very useful. 他给我买了一本书,非常有用。

句中的which was very useful为非限制性定语从句,如果去掉,句子意思仍是清楚的。

2. 关系词的区别

关系代词that和关系副词why通常只用于引导限制性定语从句,不用于引导非限制性定语从句。如:

她收到了老板的邀请,这是她意想不到的。

误:She received an invitation from her boss, that came as a surprise.

正:She received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise.

他失去工作的主要原因是他喝酒。

误:The main reason, why he lost his job, was that he drank.

正:The main reason why he lost his job was that he drank.

另外,在限制性定语从句中,关系代词which用作宾语时,如果不是紧跟在介词之后,通常可以省略;但在非限制性定语从句中,不管在什么情况下均不可省略关系代词which

3. 用法注意

当一个名词已由其他词语作了完整的表述,这个名词后则不宜再用限制限制性从句,而应改用非限制性定语从句。如:

我去看买的房子有一个很漂亮的花园。

误:My house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden.

正:My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.

若要用限制性定语从句,则应将物主代词my改为the,即说成:

The house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden.

 

 

 

二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

 

限制性定语从句限制所修饰名词或代词的意义,一般说来如把从句去掉句子意思就不清楚,甚至失去意义。而非限制性定语从句主句(句子的其他部分)关系不太紧密,对所修饰名词或代词的意思没有太大影响,把它们拿掉,句子依然很完整,它们可以说是附加上去的东西,而且通常都有逗号把它们和句子的其他部分分开。具体说来,限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句有以下几个方面的区别:

 

1. 形式不同

限定性定语从句主句和从句之间不用逗号隔开,口语中使用时也不停顿;而非限定性定语从句与主句之间通常有逗号隔开,口语中使用时有停顿。

 

2. 作用不同

限定性定语从句用于对先行词的意义进行修饰、限制和识别,如果去掉,就会造成句意不完整或概念不清;而非限定性定语从句用于对先行词起补充说明作用,如果省略,句意仍然清楚、完整:

People who take physical exercise live longer. 进行体育锻炼的人活得长些。(若把从句去掉句子就失去意义)

His daughter, who is in Boston now, is coming home next week. 他女儿现在波士顿,下星期回来。(若把从句去句子意义仍然完整)

 

3. 翻译不同

在翻译定语从句时,一般把限定性定语从句翻译在它所修饰的先行词之前,而把非限定性定语从句与主句分开:

He is the man whose car was stolen. 他就是汽车被窃的那个人。

I’ve invited Jim, who lives in the next flat. 我请了吉姆,他就住在隔壁。

 

4. 含义不同

比较:

I have a sister who is a doctor. 我有一个当医生的姐姐。(姐姐不止一个)

I have a sister ,who is a doctor. 我有一个姐姐,她是当医生的。(只有一个姐姐)

 

5. 先行词不同

限定性定语从句的先行词只能是名词或代词,而非限定性定语从句的先行词则可以是名词或代词,也可以是短语或句子;另外,当先行词为专有名词或其他具有独一无二性的普通名词时,通常要用非限制性定语从句,而不用限制性定语从句:

Peter drove too fast, which was dangerous. 彼得开车很快,这是很危险的。(whichdrive too fast)

He changed his mind, which made me very angry. 他改变了主意,这使我很生气。(which指整个主句)

Mr. Smith, who is our boss, will leave for Japan next week. 我们的老板史密斯先生下周要去日本。(先行词为专有名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

Her father, who has a lot of money, wishes her to study abroad. 她父亲很有钱,希望她出国学习。(先行词为表独一无二意义的普通名词,要用非限制性定语从句修饰)

 

6. 关系词不同

关系词thatwhy可用于限制性定语从句中,通常不用于非限制性定语从句;另外,在限制性定语从句中,关系词有时可以省略,而在非限制性定语从句中关系词一律不省略。

 

 

 

三、谈谈分离型定语从句

 

所谓语分离型定语从句,主要指的是定语从句与它所修饰的先行词之间被其他词隔开的情形。分离型定语从句主要有以下两种类型:

1. 先行词与定语从句被状语隔开。如:

He found the dictionary there he was looking for. 他在那儿找到了他在找的词典。

I saw something in the paper which might interest you. 我在报上看到一样可能使你感兴趣的东西。

2. 将定语从句置于句末。如:

Something was going to happen that was to change the world. 当时有件事就要发生,这件事将改变世界的面貌。

A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German. 明天要来一位新的老师教你们德语了。

The day will come when we will all have robots. 人人都有机器人的时代,总有一天会来临的。

注意,分离定语从句的使用主要是出于平衡句子结构或强调的原因,并且使用这类结构必须以句子不至于产生歧义为前提,否则就不要使用这类句子。如:

He hid the gun in the cellar which his wife found.

这个句子是有岐义的:如果认为定语从句which his wife found是修饰the cellar,则句子意思为:他把枪藏在他妻子发现的地下室里。如果认为定语从句which his wife found是修饰the gun(属分离修饰),则句子意思为:他把妻子发现的枪藏在地下室里。

 

 

 

 

四、使用定语从句的几个误区  

   

有的英语初学者在使用定语从句时,有时会在从句中误加与关系代词同义的人称代词,这是不对的。如:  

—This is the book that I have read __________ dozens of times.   

—But I have never read __________.   

A. it, ×    B. ×,it      C. it, it        D. ×,×  

此题应选B。容易误选C。本题第二句填代词 it, 这容易理解。而第一句不能填 it, 则是考生很容易忽视的。显然第一句中的 that I have read dozens of times 是修饰 the book 的定语从句,此句中的动词read不能再接用 it作宾语,因为它已有宾语that(也可省略)  

在做有关定语从句的试题时,考生千万不要在定语从句中重复使用与关系词(或先行词)指代相同的人称代词。如:  

我们昨晚看的电影很精彩。  

误:The film we saw it last night was wonderful.   

正:The film we saw last night was wonderful.   

刚才同你讲话的那个人是谁?   

误:Who’s the man you just talked to him?   

正:Who’s the man you just talked to?   

你昨天借给我的书很有趣。  

误:The book you lent it me yesterday was very interesting.   

正:The book you lent me yesterday was very interesting.   

他就是去年死了妻子的那个人。  

误:He is the man whose his wife died last year.   

正:He is the man whose wife died last year.

 

 

初学者在使用定语从句时,有个经常犯的错误就是分不清是定语从句还是其他从句。请看下面的题目:  

—Is this room __________ he lived in last year?   

—Is this the room __________ he lived in last year?   

A. that, that                     B. the one, the one   C. that, the one      D. the one, that  

此题应选D。容易误选A。为了便于分析,我们先将以上两句还原成陈述句(注意is的位置)。如:  

(1)This room is _________ he lived in last year.   

(2)This is the room ________he lived in last year.   

(1)句填the one, 用作表语,其后的 (that) he lived in last year是用以修饰the one 的定语从句。此句若直接填that, 则不是定语从句(因为没有先行词),而是表语从句。  

但是由于引导表语从句的that不能充当句了成分,而其后的介词in又缺宾语,所以导致错误。  

(2)句填 that, 它是关系代词,用以引导定语从句(he lived in last year)修饰the room  

请做以下类例试题。如:  

(1)—Is this the book _________ you want to buy?   

—Is this book _________ you want to buy?   

A. that, that                 B. the one, the one            C. that, the one     D. the one, that  

(2)—Is this room ___________ he lived in 5 years ago?   

—Is this the room __________ he lived in 5 years ago?   

A. that, that                 B. the one, the one            C. that, the one     D. the one, that  

答案:(1) C  (2) D  

 

有的同学一看到先行词是表示时间、地点、原因的名词,就认为一定要用关系副词,其实也不一定。在此情况下,还要看关系词在定语从句中是用作什么成分,若是用作状语,则用关系副词,若不是用作状语(如用作主语、宾语等)则不能用关系副词,而用关系代词。比较:  

This is the factory where I want to work. 这就是我想工作的工厂。(work为不及物动词where在从句中用作状语)  

This is the factory that I want to visit. 这就是我想参观的工厂。(visit为及物动词,that用作visit的宾语)  

The reason why he can’t come is that he is ill. 他没来的是因为他病了。(come为不及物动词,why在定语从句中用作状语)  

The reason that he put forth is very important. 他提出的理由很重要。(put forth为及物动词,that在定语从句中用作其宾语)

 

1.误认为关系代词whose只用于修饰人  

whose用作疑问代词时,主要用于指人;但用作关系代词时,它既可指人也可指物。如:  

It was an island, whose name I have forgotten. 它是一座岛,名字我忘了。  

The factory, whose workers are all women, is closed during the holidays. 这家工厂工人都是妇女,在假期中工厂关门了。  

2.混淆定语从句与并列句  

请看下面两题:  

(1) He has two children, and both of _______ are abroad.  

A. them                 B. which C. whom D. who  

(2) He has two children, both of _______ are abroad.  

A. them     B. which C. whom D. who  

(1)题选A,第(2)题选C。由于第(1)题中用了并列连词and,从而使整个句子为并列句,and后应是一个独立的简单句,所以选A不选C;第(2)题没有并列连词andboth of whom are abroad为非限制性定语从句。另外,请比较下题(答案为A)  

He has two children, both of _______ being abroad.  

A. them     B. which C. whom D. who  

3.误认为逗号后一定是非限制性定语从句  

有的同学一看见,就以为一定要选which而不选that,但问题是有时根本就不是定语从句。如  

(1) If a book is in English, _______ means slow progress for you.  

A. as     B. which                  C. what   D. that  

(2) When I say two hours, _______ includes time for eating.   

A. as     B. which C. what   D. that  

以上两题均应选that,而不能选which,因为它们根本不是定语从句。之所以选that,是因为句中已有ifwhen引导的状语从句,逗号后为主句,that为主句主语。

 

 

 

 

五、修饰the way的定语从句

 

the way后面的定语从句,关系词若在从句中作状语,相当于用这种方式 / 方法(=in this way)时,通常不用关系词,偶尔用that,在较正式的文体里才用in which来引导。如:

Do it the way you were taught. 要照教你的那样做。

I was impressed by the way in which she did it. 她干成这件事的方式给我留下了深刻的印象。

注意:way 后不能用 how 引导定语从句,但也可以不用 way,而直接用 how 引导的名词性从句来表达这类意思。如:

That’s the way he did it.= That’s how he did it. 他就是这样做的。

另外,当先行词way表示方向时,不用任何关系词。如:

Was that the way she went? 她是往那个方向走的吗?

 

 

 

 

六、It is time 后的定语从句用虚拟语气

 

从句谓语通常用过去式表示现在或将来,有时也用过去进行时或should+动词原形(较少见,且should不能省略),其意为()该干某事了。如:

I think it's time you went to bed. 我想你该睡觉了。

It’s time we went [were going, should go]. 我们该走了。

I think it’s time they were taught a lesson. 我想现在该给他们一点教训了。

注:time前有时有abouthigh修饰:

I think it’s high time that she made up her mind. 我想她该拿定主意了。

与其他的虚拟结构不同,该结构不能在该用 was 时而用 were。如:

It's time I was in bed. 我该上床睡了。(不用were)

 

 

 

 

七、定语从句关系词的用法与区别

 

 

定语从句即指在主从复合句用作定语的从句。定语从句通常修饰名词或代词,对它进行限制、描绘和说明。受定语从句修饰的词语叫先行词,引导定语从句的词语叫关系词。关系词按其性质又分关系代词和关系副词。关系词不仅引导定语从句,同时还在定语从句充当一定的句子成分。

 

(一)关系词的用法特点

关系词分关系代词和关系副词。关系代词主要有 that, who, whom, whose, which, as 等,其中whowhom 只用于指人,whichas 只用于指事物,whose that既可于指人也可用于指物,它们在定语从句可用作主语、宾语、表语或定语;关系副词主要有when, where why,其中when表示时间,where表地点,why表原因,它们在定语从句中均用作状语:

The dog which [that] was lost has been found. 丢失的狗找到了。(which / that指物,在从句中用作主语)

I have forgotten everything that I learnt at school. 我把学校学的所有东西都给忘了。(that指物,在从句中句作宾语)

The man who lives in that house is my uncle. 住在那座房子里的人是我叔叔。(who指人,在从句中作主语)

It was an island whose name I have forgotten. 这是一座岛,名字我忘了。

There are some students whose questions I can’t answer. 有些学生提出的问题我回答不了。(whose指人,在从句中作定语)

 

(二)关系词的选择

选择关系词可考虑以下四点:

(1) 一看先行词的意义,即分清先行词是指人、指物、时间、地点还是原因(如指物时不能用whowhom,指人时通常不用which)

(2) 二看关系词的句法功能,即分清关系词是担任什么句子成分,是作主语还是宾语、是作定语还是状语等(如作定语通常用whose,有时也用which;作状语要用when, where, why)

(3) 三看定语从句的种类,即分清是限制性定语从句还是非限制性定语从句(thatwhy通常不引导非限制性定语从句)

(4) 四看文体,即分清是正式文体还是非正式文体,是书面语体还是口语体。

 

(三)两组关系词的用法区别

1. that which的用法区别

两者都可指物,有时可互换。其区别主要在于:

(1) 引导非限制性定语从句时,通常只用which

He drove too fast, which was dangerous. 他开车很快,这是很危险的。

(2) 直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常只用which

The tool with which he is working is called a hammer. 他干活用的那个工具叫做锤子。

(3) 当先行词是much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等不定代词或受其修饰时,通常用that

All [Everything] that can be done must be done. 凡能做的事都必须做。

(4) 当先行词受the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

(5) 当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next)等修饰时,通常用that

This is the best dictionary that I’ve ever used. 这是我用过的最好的词典。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

(6) 当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的样子了。

(7) 当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that

They talked about the persons and things that most impressed them. 他们谈论了使他们印象最深的人和事。

(8) 当要避免重复时:

Which is the course that we are to take? 我们选哪门课程?

2. thatwho的用法区别

(1) 两者均可指人,有时可互换:

All that [who] heard him were delighted. 所有听了他讲话的人都很高兴。

Have you met anybody that [who] has been to Paris? 你遇见过到过巴黎的人吗?

He is the only one among us that [who] knows Russian. 他是我们中间惟一懂俄语的人。

(2) 但是在下列情况,通常要用 that

当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时:

I made a speech on the men and things that I had seen abroad. 我就我在国外所见到的人和事作了报告。

当先行词是who(为避免重复)

Who that has sympathy can laugh on that occasion? 有同情心的人谁会在那个时候发笑呢?

当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(可省略)

Tom is not the boy (that) he was. 汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。

 

 

 

八、关系词、关系代词与关系副词

 

用于引导定语从句的词语叫关系词。关系词根据其词性的不同,可分为关系代词和关系副词。引导定语从句的关系词既起连接先行词与定语从句的作用,同时又在定语从句中充当一定的句子成分。

1. 关系代词:主要有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等,它们在句子中可用作主语(如that, which, who等)、宾语(如that, which, whom等)和定语(如which, whose)。如:

Is he the man that sells dogs? 他就是卖狗的人吗?

She is the girl who won the prize. 她就是获奖的姑娘。

I’ve found the book which I was looking for. 我找到了我要找的书。

She is the woman whose car was stolen. 她就是汽车被盗的那个女人。

She is the woman whom I gave the money to. 她就是我给她钱的那位妇女。

He is absorbed in work, as he often was. 他正在全神贯注地工作,他过去经常这样。

2. 关系副词:主要有where, when, why等,它们在句子中主要用作状语。如:

This is the town where I was born. 这就是我出生的城市。

I’ll never forget the day when I first met you. 我永远不会忘记第一次见你的那天。

We don’t know the reason why he didn’t show up. 我们不知道他为什么没有来。

 

 

 

九、关系代词that用法归纳

 

一、指人的用法

that用于指人,在定语从句中可用作主语、宾语或表语。如:

A driver that has knocked someone down must stop. 撞人的司机必须停车。(关系代词thatdriver,在从句中作主语)

He is the man that you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。(关系代词thatman,在从句中作宾语)

He is not that man that he was. 他已不是过去的他了。(关系代词thatman,在从句中作表语)

二、指物的用法

that用于指物,在定语从句中可用作主语、宾语或表语。如:

This is the plane that will fly to Tokyo in the afternoon. 这是下午要飞往东京的那架飞机。(关系代词thatplane,在定语从句中作主语)

She was annoyed by something that I had said. 她为我说的某句话而不高兴。(关系代词thatsomething,在定语从句中作宾语)

Shengzhen is not the city that it used to be. 深圳现在已不是原来的那个城市了。(关系代词thatcity,在定语从句中作表语)

 

 

 

十、定语从句中关系词省略的6种情形

 

 

关系词有时可以省略,但这只限于限制性定语从句中,在非限制性定语从句中,关系词则不可省略。

 

(一)关系代词作宾语时的省略

当关系代词who, whom, whichthat在定语从句中用作动词宾语或介词位于句末时的介词宾语时,可以省略。如:

Is there anything (which) you wanted? 想要什么东西吗?

Who is the man (that / who / whom) you were talking to? 刚才和你讲话的人是谁?

 

(二)关系代词作表语时的省略

当关系代词that在定语从句中用作表语时,可以省略。如:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的中国了。(that作表语)

 

(三)关系代词作宾补时的省略

当关系代词that在定语从句中用作宾语补足时,可以省略。如:

I’m not the madman (that) you thought me. 我并不是你所认为的那个疯子。(that作宾语补语)

 

(四)关系副词when的省略

用作时间状语的关系副词when通常不能省略,但有一种特殊情况,即用于day, year, time等少数几个词后时可以省略(也可换成that)。如:

That was the year (that) I first went abroad. 就是那一年我第一次出国了。

I’ll never forget the day (that) we met. 我永远也忘不了我们见面的那一天。

 

(五)关系副词where的省略

用作地点状语的关系副词where通常不能省略,但有一种特殊情况,即用于place, somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere少数几个词后时可以省略(也可换成that)。如:

This is the place (where) they met yesterday. 这就是他们昨天碰头的地方。

Have you somewhere (that) I can lie down for an hour? 你有没有一个什么地方可以让我躺一个小时?

 

(六)关系副词why的省略

关系副词why通常只用于the reason后引导定语从句,且通常可换成thatfor which,均可省略。如:

That’s the reason (why, for which, that) he came. 这就是他来的原因。

Give me one reason (why) we should help you. 给我举出一个我们应当帮助你的理由。

 

 

 

十一、由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

 

1. 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句主要用于正式文体,在非正式文体中通常将介词放至句末。如:

This is the man to whom I referred. 我指的就是这个人。

This is the man (whom) I referred to. 我指的就是这个人。

2. 直接用于介词后作宾语的关系代词which不能换成that,直接用于介词后作宾语的关系代词whom不能换成who。但若介词用于句末,则用作宾语的which, whom也可换成that, who,或者省略不同。如:

This is a subject about which we have talked a lot. 这是一个我们讨论了许多的问题。(which不能换成that,也不能省略)

This is a subject which we have talked about a lot. 这是一个我们讨论了许多的问题。(which可以换成that,也可以省略

3. 关系副词when, where, why根据情况有时可换成介词+关系代词which”。如:

That is the day when [=on which] he was born. 那就是他出生的日子。

That is the house where [=in which] he lived. 那就是他住过的房子。

That is the reason why [=for which] he must apologize. 那就是他必须道歉的原因。

4. 在很正式的文体中,介词+关系代词引导的定语从句可紧缩成介词+关系代词+不定式结构。如:

在那儿孩子们有个玩耍的花园。

正:There the children had a garden in which to play. (很正式)

正:There the children had a garden in which they could play. (较正式)

正:There the children had a garden to play in. (较口语化)

注:这类介词+关系代词+不定式结构中的介词不能没有,也不能放在句末。如不能说There the children had a garden which to play in.

 

 

 

 

十二、同位语从句与定语从句的区别

 

一、意义的不同

同位语从句是用于说明所修饰名词的具体内容的,它与被修饰词语通常可以划等号;而定语从句是限制所修饰名词的,它的作用是将所修饰的名词与其他类似的东西区别开来。如:

We are glad at the news that he will come. 听到他要来这个消息我们很高兴。(news的内容就是that he will come,故that引导的是同位语从句)

We are glad at the news that he told us. 听到他告诉我们的这个消息我们很高兴。(that从句是限制the news的内容的,即我们高兴只是因为他告诉的这个news而不是其他的news,故that从句为定语从句)

二、引导词的不同

what, how, if, whatever 等可引导名词性从句,但不引导定语从句。

三、引导词的功能上的不同

that引导同位语从句时,它不充当句子成分,而引导定语从句时,它作为关系代词,要么充当定语从句的主语,要么充当定语从句的宾语。如上例 that he told us中的that就充当told的宾语。

四、被修饰词语的区别

同位语从句所修饰的名词比较有限,通常有hope, wish, idea, news, fact, promise, opinion, suggestion, truth等,而定语从句所修饰的名词则非常广泛。 另外,whenwhere 引导定语从句时,通常只修饰表示时间和地点的名词,而它们引导同位语从句时却不一定;又如why引导定语从句,它通常只修饰名词the reason,而它引导同位语从句时则不一定。如:

I have no idea when they will come . 我不知道他们什么时候来。(同位语从句)

I’ll never forget the days when I lived there.. 我永远不会忘记我住在那儿的日子。(定语从句)

We don’t understand the problem why this is the best choice. 我们不明白这个问题,为什么这是最好的选择。(同位语从句 )

The reason why he didn’t come to the meeting is that he is ill. 他未能来开会,原因是他生病了。(定语从句)

 

 

 

 

十三、注意这类题中的定语从句

 

请看下面这道题,千万不要选 B!为什么?

The farmhouse we paid a visit _________ at the top of the hill.

A. standing   B. to stand     C. to standing   D. to stands

【分析】此题容易误选BC,有的同学可能认为BC两者必选其一,因为其中的 to 要么是不定式符号,此时其后接动词用原形,要么就是介词,此时后接动词用动名词。其实,正确答案应是D。不错,pay a visit to 中的 to 是介词,但是在此句中 to 的宾语不是其后的动词,而是引导 we paid a visit to 这个定语从句的关系代词 that (在原句被省略),也就是说选项D中介词 to 后的动词 stands 并不是 to 的宾语,而是主句的谓语,句意为我们参观的那家农舍在小山顶上。又如:

(1) The good news we were looking forward _________ in the end.

A. arriving   B. to arrive    C. to arriving D. to arrived

答案为D,不能选BC。句中 we were looking forward to 是修饰名词 the good news 的定语从句,介词 to 后的动词 arrived 是句子的谓语,句意为我们盼望的好消息终于到了

(2) The life he is now used _________ quite different from ours.

A. is              B. to be        C. to being   D. to is

答案选D,不能选BC。句中he is now used to 是修饰 the life 的定语从句,介词 to 的宾语是用以引导定语从句 he is now used to 的关系代词that(被省略),to 后的动词 is 是句子的谓语,句意为他现在习惯的这种生活与我们的生活很不相同

(3) The work he paid special attention _________ to nothing.

A. came        B. to come     C. to coming  D. to came

答案选D,不能选BC。句中he paid special attention to 是修饰 the work 的定语从句,介词 to 的宾语是用以引导定语从句 he paid special attention to 关系代词that (被省略),to 后的动词 came 是句子的谓语,句意为他特别关注的那项工作泡汤了

(4) The result what he said would lead _________ his regret in the future.

A. is              B. to be        C. to being   D. to was

答案选D,不能选BC。句中what he said would lead to 是修饰 the result 定语从句,介词 to 的宾语是用以引导定语从句 what he said would lead to 的关系代词that (被省略),to 后的动词 was 是句子的谓语,句意为他所说的话将导致的结果是他今后的后悔

 

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